Sunday, February 23, 2020

CHANGE MANAGEMENT ON AN UNDERPERFOMING VDP Essay

CHANGE MANAGEMENT ON AN UNDERPERFOMING VDP - Essay Example es and frameworks, in their efforts to bring about the necessary changes by the VDPs to increase the performance levels and thereby patient satisfaction. The practise of dentistry in the United Kingdom requires all dentists to be registered with the General Dental Council (GDC). The GDC is the monitoring body for the dentistry practice and in its perspective the register of dentists â€Å"is not simply a list of those who call themselves a dentist. It is a list of professionals, who are recognised under the Law to be properly trained, qualified and fit for current practise and subject to regulations†. (1) Vocational Training (VT) has become mandatory for dentists to retain their own contract with a PCT. VT in general dental practice originates from the generic term ‘on-the-job-training’ (OJT). OJT for long has been acknowledged, as the preferred means for developing practical and other workplace skills. Trainers with adequate teaching and assessment skills are responsible for the work of VDPs. Through weekly tutorials; trainers supply their VDPs with help on demand and adequate supervision. Development of peer and self-review and the need for enhanced professional education, training and audit, as a lifelong continuous process are encouraged throughout the VT. (2). R Rattan Curbing unsatisfactory performance has become necessary. To this end the GDC utilises the assistance of the National Clinical Assessment Service (NCAS), to provide the assessment service. The GDC has effected this assessment through the new powers it received since July2006, to strengthen its procedures in taking decisions on the fitness of a registrant to practise, in case of misconduct, ill health, and in establishing new procedures to check unsatisfactory performance. I faced such a challenge in my dental practice last year, when several factors including an increase in patient complaints identified trainee performing unsatisfactorily. For improvement change initiatives were proposed,

Thursday, February 6, 2020

Current Recession Impacts on the Construction Industry Dissertation

Current Recession Impacts on the Construction Industry - Dissertation Example This resulted in reduction of the average disposable income. The overall negative implications were on the demands of products and goods. The economic cycle was disturbed. One of the most affected sectors by this recession was constructions and engineering sector. Globally the construction industry was at its peak in 2008, when the recession hit it. At this time, the demands of houses and infrastructure were increasing and there was consistent flow of funds within the sector. The demands of housing and new infrastructures and the flow of funds within the construction sector changed (Barrell and Kirby). The reduction in the expected flow of funds and unavailability of the predicted clients reduced the profitability and chances of survival for may construction companies across the world (Property Wire). Research Background According Jakovljevic the construction industry has a worth of nearly $5 trillion globally in terms of total output. This sector is one of the sectors providing high est employment. As per the estimation, there are nearly 100 million people employed in this sector at various levels of jobs. At the same time, contribution of the construction sector to the Global GDP is nearly 10%. This figure is considerably higher than the estimated annual spending in 2008. According to Zeiss (2008) the US$ 2.3 Trillion was the estimated spending of the Global Construction Industry. Global construction industry reached to the peak before recession. PropertyWire (2009) argues that the recession of 2008 was the hardest hit on this sector in last 60 years. Construction industry as such operates in highly complex business environment. The business environment is characterised by high regulations, coordination of various authorities, departments and skill sets, impact of the changing climatic and weather conditions on the construction process, lagging productivity or other issues linked with workforce (Bosch and Phillips). The recession at one hand reduced the dispos able income of the consumers by salary cuts and loss of jobs; on the other hand, this reduced the funds flow in the construction sector. All the intermediaries like equipment suppliers of the construction sector, transport companies, intermediaries and others have experienced the repercussions of the recession. The business environment of the construction sector became more pessimistic. However by the mid of 2009, the impact of recession was reduced and industry started being optimistic again. This was revealed in a global survey conducted by KPMG that by the end of 2009, the Global construction industry started expecting positive growth. This was an important survey that covered more than two-third construction companies of the globe and from the 30 different countries. The study reported that the majority of the construction companies were having positive growth or consistent business performance. However it was evident in the study that the companies working on the long term proj ects have minor impact of recession as compared to the companies who were expecting returns at the shorter duration (Molly). The recession resulted in reducing

Wednesday, January 29, 2020

The Cold War in Europe Essay Example for Free

The Cold War in Europe Essay How far do you agree that the Cold War in Europe broke out because Soviet and Western leaders misinterpreted each others words and actions? The Cold War broke out in 1945 (although some have argued other years) with the Yalta and Potsdam Conferences. They were held to discuss what was to be done with the peace of Europe and how to rebuild the damage that had been caused. It was at these meetings that the Americans and Russians slowly began to mistrust one another, even though they were previously war-time allies. During the Potsdam Conference in July/August of 1945, America declared that they had tested the first Atomic Bomb (which President Harry Truman referred to as the greatest thing in history). Stalin was suspicious as to why America had not told him previously, and after this, relations spiraled down rapidly. But it was at this time that Americas suspicions of the USSR were beginning to settle in and it was Harry Truman who later said that unless Russia is faced with an iron fist and strong language another war is in the making Their first misinterpretation was over the issue of Poland and what was to happen to it now that the war was over. Russia had been attacked through this country on numerous occasions, including World War 1 and 2 and had lost approximately 25 million people, 700 towns destroyed and their steel industry cut by half. They were keen to dominate and occupy most of the land in order to prevent any further attacks through this country. On the other hand, Britain had gone to war over Poland and was keen for it to remain independent. Also, there was a Polish Government who had been forced into exile at the beginning of the war and Britain was now keen for them to return to power. As for America, they became extremely suspicious of Russias plans and believed that Russia merely wanted to spread Communism. Unlike at the end of World War 1, they were determined not to appease Stalin as Britain had done with Hitler. It should be remembered that they did have the right to believe that Stalin only had the intentions of spreading communism through the quotation of Karl Marx. He declared that We are living not merely in a state, but in a system of states and its inconceivable that the Soviet Republic should continue to exist for a long period side-by-side with imperialist states. The Warsaw Pact and Marshall Aid are other examples of how the two great powers misunderstood each other, thus causing a start of the Cold War. Western suspicions rose to a height when Stalin refused to allow Marshall Aid to be distributed to Soviet-occupied countries. As a result, the Warsaw Pact was created in retaliation. It could have actually been an attack towards the West, or Stalin trying to hold together his buffer states and prevent them from turning to Capitalism. There are some smaller matters that show that the Cold War was the result of misunderstandings. For example, the Long Telegram, this was written by George Kennan in February 1946. George Kennan was the USAs Deputy Chief of Mission to the US Embassy in Moscow and in a telegram he declared that the Soviets were aggressive and suspicious and only a hard-line approach would contain Communism. It declared that world communism is like a malignant parasite that feeds on diseased tissue. It [the USSR] does not take unnecessary risks. Impervious to the logic of reason. It is highly sensitive to the logic of force thus, if the adversary [the USA] has sufficient force and makes clear his readiness to use it, he rarely has to do so. Taking this evidence from the eyes of a Revolutionist thinker, it can be said that George Kennan was rash and presumed this with little prior knowledge. But there were other factors which led to the beginning of the Cold War. People such as Vojtech Mastny have accused Stalin as being the sole man to cause the Cold War. He regarded Stalins foreign policy in Eastern Europe as the cause of the Cold War. His Red Army liberated land, therefore claiming it to be theirs. To the USA, this looked aggressive and a determined effort at spreading World Communism. The Berlin Blockade was the first direct attack on the West from the Soviet Union. It started when Berlin was divided into 4 parts and these 3 parts that belonged to the West were surrounded by Soviet territory. This upset and frightened Stalin as he believed that they would influence his Eastern Berlin and Germany. In rebellion, he closed of all the main routes by land, sea and road that lead into West Berlin. In response to this, America began to send in 450 aeroplanes of food and other supplies each day in order to prevent West Berlin from collapse. The America viewed all of this as a first attack on them and so serious action was necessary. But, although it may have seemed like the Soviets wanted to starve all the West Berliners to death, he probably wanted to prevent the emergence of a separate West German state under US influence (West Berlin was improving its economy greatly and the currency had even been changed). In response to all of this, America created NATO, which was a military alliance aimed against further Soviet aggression. And so, although it was seen as the first attack, there are also underlying misunderstandings to be considered. Some other explanations include the fact that it was simply inevitable. The end of the war left a power-vacuum in which countries such as Eastern Europe and Germany sucked the Powers in and so aggression would naturally occur. Louis Halle, the author of The Cold War as History once stated that the decision to eliminate German power from Europe rather than make peace was the basic cause of the Cold War. The collapse of the Grand Alliance can also have been seen as inevitable. During the Yalta Conference, the war-time allies spoke and they all generally agreed on matters. But by the time the Potsdam Conference came a few months later, Roosevelt had died and been replaced with Harry Truman and Winston Churchill had been replaced with George Atlee. Only Stalin remained and this meant that neither of the other powers really knew him. They became suspicious quickly and disliked everything he did. It can be said that as a result of all of this, the Grand Alliance was destined to collapse and then after that tensions rose and the Cold War began. Another reason can be seen in the Commonwealth and other such countries that were occupied by the Powers, only in this case it was Britain, France and Portugal who suffered the power-vacuum. Many of these countries had been promised independence if they fought with their occupying country and now that the war was over they were independent and left vulnerable to Communism. The Soviet Union would naturally spread into these countries and as a result, the USA would become suspicious of the Soviet Union. Also the fact that all the countries had suffered badly during the war (with the exception of America, whos industry had doubled) meant that they were all desperate to regain their reputation in World Status and so felt that by gaining land would they become more powerful. And so, with many of the countries trying to rebuild their prestige, arguments and suspicion would naturally arise. The USSR had also just become a World Leader and after many years of shying away, they felt that they needed to exert their power, although this could be a much debated view and one usually take by a Traditionalist thinker. There has been much debate over who really started the Cold War. A traditionalist thinker would say that it was the doings of the Soviet Union, whereas a Revolutionist would say that America was to blame and finally a Post-Revolutionist would say that it was the work of both Powers. A traditionalist would argue that Russia only had plans to spread Communism in an aggressive manner and Britain and the USA were only trying to be defensive. On the other hand, a Revolutionist would assert that it was the Americans who were all to blame and that they were aggressive even before the start of the Second World War. And so in conclusion, I would say that the Cold War was a result of mainly misunderstandings but it should be remembered that there were many other reasons as to why the USA and the USSR became so suspicious of each other, for example, the fact that there was a huge power-vacuum both around the world and in Europe and the Berlin Blockade of 1948.

Monday, January 20, 2020

The Causes Of The World Trade Center Bombing :: essays research papers

In September 1929, "the Roaring Twenties," "the Era of Wonderful Nonsense," of sex, booze and jazz, ended with the stock market crash that began the Great Depression. There followed the "low dishonest decade" of poet W. H. Auden's depiction, as Western statesmen sought to appease their way to security and peace. On Sept. 11, 2001, as the 767s smashed into the twin towers of the World Trade Center and Pentagon, killing 5,000 Americans, another unserious era of sex scandals and stock market silliness came to an end. Recall, if you will, the summer of 2001. The story that had CNN, MSNBC and FOX News transfixed was the saga of Gary Condit. Nightly, talk-show hosts demanded answers to the great questions: Why did Gary throw away the watch box? Where did stewardess Anne Marie Smith spend her D.C. nights? By Sept. 11, the story seemed about to end in a great courtroom drama, with Anne Marie charging Gary with libel – for denying she committed adultery. What will the decade be remembered for? The Trial of O. J.? Who killed Jon-Benet Ramsey? The Oval Office trysts of Bill and Monica? Condit summer? Meanwhile, not to worry about the world. For America is "the last superpower," the "indispensable nation." The New Economy will take us to "Dow 36,000!" "Pax Americana" and "Global Democracy" are our destiny. On Sept. 11, the frivolous era came to an end. Suddenly, for the first time since Gen. Jackson drove the British army out of Louisiana, the enemy was inside the gates, slaughtering thousands. Why? Because we adopted an open-borders policy that left tens of millions of illegal aliens wandering about America, few of whom had any loyalty to us, some of whom were willing to murder us on the orders of their foreign masters. To keep the cost of labor down, we let millions of strangers, and not a few enemies, into our home. Never before has America been so vulnerable, and corporate greed and craven politics did it to us. Tuesday, the U.S. reported that industrial production fell for the 12th straight month. Bethlehem Steel became the latest U.S. company to go Chapter 11. U.S. factories now produce at 75 percent of capacity. Last year, the U.S. trade deficit in manufactureds hit $324 billion and the merchandise trade deficit $450 billion. The de-industrialization of America is well advanced. In a triumph of the globalists, America has become again what she has not been in generations: a dependent nation.

Sunday, January 12, 2020

The goal of improving our educational system for the benefit

If there is one thing that binds all our readings together, it is the goal of improving our educational system for the benefit of our student and their future. Despite the debates actively taking place and the battles educational institutions are fighting for, there remains a consensus, a middle ground where all can meet and be in agreement. And that is the drive towards developing our children into the best individuals they can possibly be, ready to take on bigger and more challenging roles in the future.This development starts the moment life breathes into a child. This continues as he or she grows and matures. But we do not expect all children to develop at the same time, in the same manner, at the same pace, because as Tanner (1978) pointed out, children possess a â€Å"tempo of growth,† meaning, some â€Å"play out their growth andante, others allegro, a few lentissimo† (cited in Hetherington and Parke, 1993, p. 90).This fact led me to assess what theorist Vygotsky termed as â€Å"zone of proximal development† or ZPD in the playground and in my host teacher’s classroom to explore the â€Å"distance between the actual development level† of students as determined by their â€Å"independent problem solving and the level of potential development as determined† by their â€Å"problem solving under adult supervision or in collaboration with more capable peers† (cited in Thomas, 2000, pp. 308-309). Since Vygotsky focused on cognitive and mental development in exploring children’s ZPD, my research will explore the physical signs of development by which students manifest ZPD.My observation started with kids in the playground. I watched as a group of children played – chasing each other, climbing poles, taking slides, swinging and running around, jumping in ropes, and exhibiting tons of energy.   I noticed their bodies are small and fragile, yet they are very strong and eager to engage in active and ti reless play. I picked two kids to talk to; one was a nine-year old boy, 4’9† tall and 110 lbs. heavy, and the other was a girl about the same age, 4’7† in height and appears relatively thin for her age. Both are actively engaged in playing with their friends, but differ in backgrounds, maturity, and level of reasoning and thinking.The girl came from humble roots, with only a relative to take care of her. I noticed a level of sincerity, maturity, and truthfulness for her age. She said she prefers studying more than playing because she regards education as a stepping stone to fulfill her dream of improving her family’s life. On the other hand, the boy came from an affluent family. As I was talking to him, I noticed that his mind was not in our conversation, as he continuously gazed at his playmates showing uninterested to my queries. He claimed he prefers playing than studying because he usually achieves the fun he wants in the playground and not in th e classroom.My journey in exploring children’s ZPD led me to my host teacher’s class in Laggard High School. Before the first period, Earth Science, I was introduced to the class and the students welcomed me with subtle smiles and greetings. I immediately took note of their different body structures that ranged from thin to big, but majority were of the normal structure for their age. My host teacher started the discussion with a recap of the previous lesson. This was her strategy to get students’ attention, at the same time, gauge the memory and knowledge of her students.She connected the previous topic with the lesson for the day for them to easily follow the discussion and thus, a smooth transition of topics. The students cooperated as they listened attentively to what she was saying. However, she disliked this silence because she wants her students to participate in the discussion by actively reciting or raising a question or clarification. Thus, she encoura ged them to raise their hand if they think and feel like they cannot follow what she was saying or they simply want to add or say something to the class. And so some students started raising their hands and stood up. One student seated at the back waved at her and asked her to repeat what she just said because this student did not hear clearly what the teacher said; another persistently raised her hand and called out to her, supplementing the discussion with some of her thoughts and ideas.Furthermore, my host teacher encouraged a collaborative style of learning, in which a student will assist another student in understanding the lessons. Not only does help come from my host teacher and her assistant teacher, but also from students themselves. The more capable students moved out from their chairs to go to their less capable classmates. They started opening their notes and engaged in chit-chats. One even pretended she was the teacher and went in front of the class to make a point. Ano ther used his forefinger to stress important facts in his notes at the same time made use of hand gestures to express himself. Others, who were being taught, simply nodded in agreement and thanked the more capable classmates for tutoring. This was a clear evidence of scaffolding or adjusting or modifying the kind and amount of support given to the students that is best fitted to their level of development (Hetherington and Parke, 1993, p.333).My host teacher, aware that her students have varied levels of knowledge absorption and mental capacity, modified the support she gives to the class by letting more capable students assist less capable ones, since she knows she cannot focus on each one of them. This allows the more capable students to share their knowledge and the less capable students to cope up with and follow the lessons, thus a harmonious classroom environment is encouraged and a uniform level of development is reached. Moreover, as I stayed longer in the classroom, I reali zed that students demonstrated ZPD only with the people they trust and respect.While some called my assistance, others still regarded me as an outsider and hesitated to ask for my help. I found this claim more evident in the next session, as some students grew noisy and unruly. With just one stern look or a thumbs-down signal from my host teacher and every single mouth shuts up. Therefore, for all students to reach the desired ZPD, more capable students, who possess the ability to solve problems on their own and with the help of their teacher, should help out those who cannot solve problems independently. Also, for ZPD to take effect, trust and respect should primarily be established.ZPD comes with time and effort. We can gauge students’ ZPD by their physical activeness either in the playground or in the classroom, as they energetically play with their playmates, and raise their hands in recitation or use hand gestures in expressing themselves, respectively. The physical deve lopment of one child does not rest solely on his or her height or weight, as both the two kids in the playground and the students in the classroom exhibited activeness and flexibility in their own ways.Furthermore, less physical development in children does not mean less emotional and cognitive development, as evident in the girl who demonstrated more maturity and intelligence in answering my queries, and the more capable students, of normal body structures, who established more knowledge and problem solving skills. In addition, the environment where a child grows up or lives in with creates a huge impact on his or her development, as manifested by the simple beginnings of the girl who valued education more than anything else, the affluent upbringing of the boy who considered playing as more important than studying, and the students in the classroom, taught by their teacher to value collaboration in learning.Although these are little signs of children’s physical development, these are significant indicators that will lead them to develop socially in their dealings with their parents, classmates, teachers, friends, and neighbors; emotionally in facing life and its situations maturely; and cognitively with a deep understanding of things and problem solving techniques. My research can help parents realize that they should give their children enough freedom to have fun and enjoy their childhood, but at the same time, instill the value of education. Teachers, too, can benefit from my research, in that they should encourage peer collaboration in the classroom for students to express themselves physically and cognitively. Learning about students’ ZPD is one way educational institutions can help guarantee that knowledge, critical thinking, and problem solving, are imparted in our students, thus the goal of developing our children into the best individuals they can possibly be, is realized.ReferencesHetherington, E.M. and Parke, R. (1993). Child Psycholog y: A contemporary viewpoint(4th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc.Thomas, R.M. (2000). Comparing theories of child development (5th ed.). California:Wadsworth/Thomson Learning.

Saturday, January 4, 2020

Essay about Juvenile Recidivism - 3185 Words

Introduction: Recidivism or, habitual relapses into crime, has time and time again proven to be an issue among delinquents, which thereby increases the overall juvenile prison population. This issue has become more prevalent than what we realize. Unless a unit for measuring a juvenile’s risk of recidivism is enacted and used to determine a system to promote effective prevention, than the juvenile prison population will continue to increase. Our court system should not only focus on punishing the said juvenile but also enforce a program or policy that will allow for prevention of recidivism. So the question remains, how can recidivism in the juvenile prison population be prevented so that it is no longer the central cause for increased†¦show more content†¦Not only this but, â€Å"offenders who commit new offenses after court contact are at risk for a variety of poor developmental and life course outcomes, including school failure, out of home placements, occupation al marginality, and long-term involvement in criminal activity† (Schwalbe 2004). As seen here, this is a downward spiral. Active reform has never before been at such a demand. As recidivism and juvenile delinquency continues to increase, not only will national crime rates and juvenile prison populations inflate, but the diminishing of an educated, safe, and economically stable society will also be affected regrettably. If juveniles whom continue to commit repeat criminal offenses lack school initiative, family support, and job exposure, than relatively as recidivism and juvenile criminal activity increases, our nation’s standard of living will consequently lower. For those who are simply interested in the costs, it may be fairly surprising. It is a common and misconceived ideal that incarceration is a cheap and easy way to contain criminals, in this case juveniles. However, due to the fact that the incarceration itself has not in any way hindered criminal activity rates or decreased juvenile recidivism, taxpayers are simply investing more money into these detention facilities and court proceedings than what is realized. Let’s look at a specific detention facility for example. The CookShow MoreRelatedJuvenile Recidivism3788 Words   |  16 PagesJuvenile Recidivism Karen G Liberty University Abstract Recidivism is when someone returns to the same behavior that they were previously doing (Unruh, Gau, amp; Waintrup, 2009). There are many factors that raise the risk of juvenile recidivism such as single parenting, and even when the parents become involved in drug use. When juveniles become high risk for recidivism it is important that the adults whether it be the parents, teachers or any adult in authority step in to help the juvenile toRead MoreThe Recidivism Area On Juvenile Delinquency1670 Words   |  7 PagesIn order to conduct research in the recidivism area, the use of secondary data will be used as an appropriate method for analysis. This analysis consists of measuring traditional penal sanctions such as incarceration versus alternative ways such as a rehabilitation treatment to deal with juvenile delinquency and investigate how it affects recidivism rates. 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TheRead MoreMentoring Program to Reduce Juvenile Recidivism4170 Words   |  17 Pageswere placed under rehabilitation centers reconnect to community and avoid recidivism is to provide them education and employment opportunities upon release. It is in this area where mentoring programs to achieve this goal are gaining popularity, the authors said (p.20). The purpose of this paper is to survey the literature that tackles mentoring the youth at risk of re-offending, particularly those included in the juvenile justice system. Mentoring is an intervention program which aims to createRead MoreJuvenile Delinquency And The Recidivism Rate2261 Words   |  10 PagesJuvenile Delinquency and the Recidivism Rate Juvenile Delinquency seems to always find itself on the front pages of newspapers. The juvenile delinquency rate is very high in America, today. 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So, with many budget cuts happening we will need to tackle theRead MoreEvaluation Of Robinson s Juvenile Recidivism Prevention Center3541 Words   |  15 PagesABSTRACT According to the Office of Juvenile Justice and delinquency prevention, mentoring is a valuable method to avert at-risk juvenile from involvement in delinquency and also to facilitate already delinquent ones to transform their lives for the better. Evaluation is useful in assuring that the mentoring program is working as intended and to establish whether the program is meeting its goals and objectives. Without conducting an actual evaluation, program teams sometimes draw on findings thatRead MoreJuvenile Delinquency And Recidivism Are A Major Problem Within Our Country Today Essay1514 Words   |  7 Pages Juvenile delinquency and recidivism are a major problem within our country today. There are a number of programs out there that provide treatment for issues such as drug addiction and abuse. There are other programs that provide help for gang involvement, provide help to female offenders, provide help with family counseling, and for mental health issues. There are still others tha t help with community outreach and help with parenting and helping the family dynamic. Providing effective treatment

Friday, December 27, 2019

The History of Growth - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 5 Words: 1396 Downloads: 5 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Business Essay Type Analytical essay Level High school Did you like this example? History of Growth Since 1914, the first scheduled air service began in Florida, air travel industry has been facilitating economic growth, world trade, global integration and tourism industry over the last century. In North American, airline industry has undergone a significant development since the end of World War II. As the important of air transport has been recognized through the war, the demand for civil air transport grew explosively. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "The History of Growth" essay for you Create order Many airlines had opportunities to increase their fleets and operate new routes (Airline for America, 2007). In 1978, Congress passed the Airline Deregulation Act that transferred the control right over airline industry from the government to the market. The deregulation and liberalization widely spread from U.S. to the entire world that helped shape the evolution of the competitive international airline industry (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2007). In Canada, the government fully deregulated airline industry in 1987 and adopted the Blue Sky Policy to encourage the liberalization of Air Transport Agreements in 2006(Transport Canada, 2012). At the beginning of the 21st century, airline industry experienced a financial crisis because of the global economic recession. Even worse, the September 11 terrorist attacks aggravated the industryà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s difficult situation. The safety and security issues became critical to both airlines and passengers. From 2001 to 2005, th e net losses of U.S. airline industry were over $40 billion (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2007). In 2008, the whole airline industry once again faced serious challenge from high fuel prices and the à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“Great Recessionà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ . The operating profitability in 2008 is dropped from 4% gain in previous year to a disappointing loss of 1% (International Air Transport Association, 2010). Life Cycle: Maturity The current life cycle of Canadian airline industry is in the stage of maturity. The industry growth has decelerated and the competition is aggressive. The industry performance often fluctuates with the economy. As the result of the low industry profitability, cost management and efficiency improvement became the major strategic targets of airline industry instead of capacity growth. According to the data in Airlines Industry Profile: Canada (2005), the global economic downturn resulted in the Canadian airline industry presenting a negative compound annual rate of change of 4.4% over the 2000 to 2004 period. The demand of industry declined until 2003 that remained unchanged in the period 2000-2004. Facing the brutal market competition, airline mergers and acquisitions have been prevailing across the entire industry. In 2000, Air Canada increased their market share by the acquisition of and merger with their largest competitors Canadian Airlines. Although the performance had been im proved over 2005-2008, following the global airlines industry trend, Canadian airline industry suffered another decline in 2009 because of the high fuel price, disappointing demand and the economic recession. Over the last five years, the industry revenue growth was slightly below the Canada GDP growth after the recession. The data of Airlines Industry Profile: Canada (2014) showed that the compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of the industry in the period 2009-2013 was 7.1%, while GDP grew at the compound annual rate of 8.5% over the same period. Looking forward, the growth of the industry is predicted to slow down with a CAGR of 3.8% for the next five years. Structure Legacy carriers often refer to airlines that established before the deregulation. They usually own more luxury aircrafts and offer first and business class seating with higher level of services. After the airline industry deregulation, legacy carriers started to use a hub-and-spoke system to organize their flights. The system allows airline to select some airports in major cities as hubs and connect to other cities as spokes. It provides less number of routes with more frequent services which increases the transportation resource efficiency. In addition, the system also allows legacy carriers to provide international long-haul flights. Therefore, in order to take advantage of competition among the major international gateways, domestic carriers have built alliance relationship with foreign carriers. Canadian air carriers can benefit from the alliance because of its important geographic location (Madore Shaw, 1993). Today Star Alliance is the largest global airline alliance with 26 member airlines including Air Canada. Competing against legacy carriers, low cost carriers have played a key role in short-haul domestic routes by using point-to-point system. Instead of stopover at hub, point-to-point system reduces connections and travel time. The low cost carriers expanded their significant market share during economic crisis in 2000. They offered lower fares and less services to attract price sensitive consumers. The most successful part of low cost carriers is the higher labor productivity than legacy carriers. The flexible work culture and cross-utilization employees create a labor cost advantage for low cost carriers (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2007). Economics Airline industry is one of the lowest returns on invested capital among all the industries, which on average the returns hardly meet investorsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ earning expectation. The averaged ROIC of global airline industry is 4.1% over the period 2004 to 2011, which is enable the industry to pay for its debt interest costs and small dividend. However, it was still far below the average cost of capital of 7.5 %( IATA, 2013). According to the IATA Industry Statistics (2014), the revenue of global commercial airlines in 2013 was $710 billion, and the net profit was 10.6 million, only a 1.5% margin on revenues. The global airline industryà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s fuel cost accounted for 30% of the total $690 billion operating expense, which continues to be the largest proportion of operating cost. The total fuel bill of $210 billion, compared with the industry profits of 10.6 billion, showed that the entire airline industry facing the structural issues that squeeze the profit too thin. F or North American market, the net profit in 2013 was $7 billion, and EBIT margin was 5.3% on revenues, which was higher than the other regions (IATA, 2014). In Canada, the airline industry value was $17255.6 million last year, and the market volume was 59.5 million passengers. For Canadian airline industry, domestic is always the largest segment of the total volume (Martketline, 2014). Technology Since the rising fuel price and air pollution are two most important issues for aviation, the airline industry has been developing technologies that would improve the aircrafts fuel efficiency throughout the years. According to the International Civil Aviation Organization environment report (2010), compared with aircraft in 1985, modern aircraft has reduced 15% fuel burn and deliver 40% lower carbon dioxide emissions. In 2007, the government of Canada launched the Strategic Aerospace and Defence Initiative (SADI) to encourage research and development of strategic innovative projects in the aerospace and defence sectors. The SADI has invested $300 million to improve aircraft engine technology and fuel consumption (Finance Canada, 2013). Three significant technologies in aircraft design are prevailing in the industry. The first is weight reduction, which can maximum the carrierà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s load factor using same amount of fuel burn. Future aircraft will have 70% advanced mate rial, including à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“composite wings and parts of the fuselageà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  to reduce 15% weight. The second is aerodynamics improvements that reduce friction drag and maintain optimal laminar flow. The potential application areas are wings, nacelles, empennages and winglets. The last one is engine-specific performance improvement, which can provide clean and efficient power. The achievement of engine improvement in last ten years provided 2% fuel consumption improvement. As the technology matures, new engine is expected to save 15% fuel consumption (ICAO, 2010, p.74-75). Reference: Airline for America. (2007). Airline Handbook. Retrieved from https://www.airlines.org/Pages/Airline-Handbook-Chapter-1-Brief-History-of-Aviation.aspx International Air Transport Association. (2010). Airline Profits 2008. Retrieved from https://www.iata.org/whatwedo/Documents/economics/Airline_2008_Profits_Feb2010.pdf Transport Canada. (2012). The 2006 Blue Sky Policy: Objectives, Principles, and Approach. Retrieved from https://www.iata.org/whatwedo/Documents/economics/Airline_2008_Profits_Feb2010.pdf International Air Transport Association. (2013). Profitability and the air transport value chain. Retrieved from https://www.iata.org/whatwedo/Documents/economics/profitability-and-the-air-transport-value chain.pdf Massachusetts Institute of Technology. (2007). Airline Industry Overview. Retrieved from https://web.mit.edu/airlines/analysis/analysis_airline_industry.html Madore, O., Shaw, J. D. (1993). The Canadian airline industry: its structure, performance and prosp ect. Retrieved from https://publications.gc.ca/Collection-R/LoPBdP/BP/bp329-e.htm#A. Industry Marketline. (2014). Airline Industry Profile: Canada. Retrieved from https://web.b.ebscohost.com.proxy.lib.sfu.ca/bsi/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?si[email  protected]/* */vid=15hid=112 Datamonitor. (2005). Airline Industry Profile: Canada. Retrieved from https://web.b.ebscohost.com.proxy.lib.sfu.ca/bsi/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?si[email  protected]/* */vid=2hid=112 Finance Canada. (2013). Budget Plan 2013. Retrieved from https://www.fin.gc.ca/new_template/2013/doc/plan/toc-tdm-eng.html International Civil Aviation Organization. (2010). ICAO Environmental Report 2010. Retrieved from https://www.fin.gc.ca/new_template/2013/doc/plan/toc-tdm-eng.html Fact sheet: https://www.iata.org/pressroom/facts_figures/fact_sheets/Documents/industry-facts.pdf